Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes to Present Their Perspectives on the Sand Creek Massacre in a November Exhibition at the History Colorado Center


Three Tribal Nations and History Colorado Partner to Give an Authentic Representation of Atrocity’s Impact


DENVER – On November 19, 2022, a new exhibition “The Sand Creek Massacre: The Betrayal that Changed Cheyenne and Arapaho People Forever,” opens at the History Colorado Center in Denver. The exhibition will recount the deadliest day in Colorado history—November 29, 1864—when U.S. troops brutally attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho who were promised military protection. More than 230 women, children and elders were killed. The exhibition is being made in deep consultation with representatives from the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. For the first time, History Colorado will be telling the full story of the Sand Creek Massacre based on tribal accounts and oral histories from the descendants of those who survived that terrible day.


“This exhibition will include information about the lives of the Cheyenne and Arapaho people before the massacre, life today and our efforts to remember the massacre,” explains Fred Mosqueda (Southern Arapaho), a tribal historian and Sand Creek descendant.

The exhibition is the result of a ten-year partnership process beginning in 2012 between History Colorado and the three tribal nations.

Each exhibition element is being vetted and approved by tribal representatives. Following proper protocol, this consultation with the three sovereign tribal governments ensures the display respects the memories of the victims. In fact, at the request of the tribes, no artifacts from the day or site of the Massacre will be in the exhibition.

History Colorado’s co-creators and designated tribal representatives include: Otto Braided Hair, Jr. of the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Montana; Ben Ridgley, Gail Ridgely, and Ryan Ortiz of the Northern Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming; and Fred Mosqueda, Chester Whiteman and Eugene Blackbear of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Oklahoma. The exhibit team is also consulting with other scholars on the Massacre’s national significance, including Dr. Ari Kelman, author of​ A Misplaced Massacre: Struggling Over the Memory of Sand Creek (Harvard, 2015); Dr. Alexa Roberts, the first Superintendent of the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site; and Dr. Laurie Arnold (Sinixt Band of the Colville Confederated Tribes), director of Native American Studies at Gonzaga University.

Since then, History Colorado staff have worked closely with the descendants of the Massacre’s victims to repair and re-establish relationships. Exhibition research and consultation is ongoing, and includes dozens of phone and in-person meetings as well as trips to each of the three tribal communities. This collaboration has been highly productive and ensures the exhibition will properly honor tribal perspectives and represent the Cheyenne and Arapaho’s distinct cultures, traditions and history.

“The Sand Creek Massacre is a Colorado tragedy with national importance,” said Sam Bock, historian and lead exhibit developer for this exhibition. “The soldiers who attacked the peaceful camp were U.S. troops, raised under the Union banner during the Civil War. Their goal was to exterminate the original people of this land.”

“We have to acknowledge our history—including the darkest chapters—in order to heal and move forward,” said U.S. Senator John Hickenlooper, who as Governor formally apologized for the Sand Creek Massacre on behalf of the State of Colorado. “This exhibit will ensure we never forget the horrific atrocity at Sand Creek, and by doing so help prevent us from repeating it.”

Commemorative efforts are ongoing in Colorado, and since 1999 have included the Sand Creek Massacre Spiritual Healing Run from the massacre site to Denver each fall. In 1909, a now-removed statue at Colorado’s state capitol incorrectly referred to the massacre as a battle. In 2002, the state installed a second plaque explaining that the atrocity was a massacre and not a battle. Members of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes are currently working with the Colorado Commission on Indian Affairs on a memorial at the Colorado State Capitol that will signify the resilience of tribal people in the face of the losses they endured.

“The Sand Creek Massacre: The Betrayal that Changed Cheyenne and Arapaho People Forever” was made possible by substantial grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Institute of Museum and Library Services. The exhibition will open to the public on November 19, 2022. Visitors of the History Colorado Center, along with tens of thousands of school-aged children on field trips, will have the option to access the exhibition’s carefully presented, powerful content.

(Edited for size-content)


Grace Markley, Philosophy Communication

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